Article III - Subdivision Regulations
Subpart C. Subdivision Road Standards Applicable to All Subdivision Types and Subtypes
North Carolina General Statute (NCGS) §136-102.6 requires a developer disclose to each buyer of property the
The ownership (public or private) of the road serving the lot,
How the road will be maintained, and
Who shall be responsible for such maintenance.
The law further requires certain road maintenance agreements be executed.
Right-of-way standards apply within the property being developed. Rights-of-way shall be capable of supporting a
road by meeting the minimum width specified by this Chapter (See Table 3.3). Any portion of an existing recorded
right-of-way which does not meet minimum width requirements of this Chapter shall be upgraded to:
Meet the full right-of-way requirement when the right-of-way is surrounded by or abutting the tract; or
Provide one-half (1/2) of the required right-of-way (measured from the centerline of the existing right-of-
way) when the right-of-way is not completely contained by the tract to be subdivided.
Out of County Access
Access to a proposed subdivision through another County shall meet or exceed all right-of-way and road
Existing Private Roads
Any portion of an existing private road: (1) located in an existing recorded private right-of-way and (2) surrounded
by the tract to be subdivided shall be upgraded to meet the road standards of this Subpart C (Subdivision Road
Standards Applicable to All Subdivision Types and Subtypes).
Roads should be constructed (1) along the contour of the land because of the difficulty of operating vehicles on steep
grades and high potential for erosion, and (2) so that water will drain from the road surface into side ditches.
Be constructed with suitable stone and compacted properly,
Be constructed on a sub base of suitable soil capable of supporting it, and
Not be constructed on used asphalt (an unacceptable base course).
The Subdivision Administrator may require a professional engineer or professional surveyor to certify, or provide
applicable proof, that the roads were constructed to standards prescribed in this Subpart C (Subdivision Road
Standards Applicable to All Subdivision Types and Subtypes) and approved development plan. This may be
accomplished by on-site supervision by the engineer or his designee during the construction of the road, or through
a series of core sample tests at appropriate key areas or as requested by the Subdivision Administrator. The core
samples should be spaced accordingly and the location and number of core samples should be agreed upon by the
engineer and Subdivision Administrator prior to testing. NCDOT certification is not required.
Permanent stabilization of soils to prevent erosion shall be achieved by seeding areas disturbed by the construction
of a road (including cut and fill slopes, shoulders, ditch banks, etc.) as soon as feasible after road construction. The
Subdivision Administrator, where seasonal weather prevents seeding, may require:
An improvement guarantee be posted with the County to ensure the installation of permanent stabilization;
Other materials (straw, mulch, etc.) are applied temporarily until seed can be sewn.
Road names are required for all public and private roads (including alleys and driveway easements) that access more
than two (2) lots. Proposed names for roads shall:
Be pre-approved by Henderson County in accordance with Chapter 41 of the Henderson County Code,
Not duplicate or be phonetically similar to existing road names, irrespective of the use of the
suffix (i.e., road, avenue, boulevard, drive, place, court etc.).
Not exceed 15 characters, including spaces (not including prefixes and suffixes).
A proposed road obviously in alignment with an existing named road shall bear the name of existing road.
Road Name Signs and Regulatory Signs
Road name signs and regulatory signs (speed limit signs, stop signs, etc.) shall be provided in accordance with
Chapter 41 of the Henderson County Code, Property Addressing and with applicable local, state and federal laws,
rules and regulations.
Road Drainage and Culverts
Road drainage structures, ditches, and culverts shall be designed and constructed in accordance with State Road
Standards and with sufficient depth and width to carry the expected volume of stormwater runoff. Culverts may be
required where the road crosses streams or minor watercourses. Best Management Practices should be utilized for
road swales (turf matting and vegetation, etc.) to control erosion and transport of sediment and to filter pollutants
from stormwater runoff.
Stub roads shall be designed in locations which will permit the future extension of subdivision roads.
Road Type Designation
Applicants shall indicate if roads are to be public or private on applications, plans and plats. Where private roads are
proposed as extensions of existing public roads, the developer must clearly justify why proposed roads should not
be extended for public use. Private roads may become public if accepted into the public road system by NCDOT.
Public Roads. Public roads (and their associated public bridges) shall:
Be designed and constructed in accordance with State Road Standards.
Be offered dedication to the public (though this does not guarantee NCDOT will accept or agree to
assume the maintenance responsibility of the proposed public road).
Private Roads. Private roads shall be the standards of this Subpart C (Subdivision Road Standards
Applicable to All Subdivision Types and Subtypes).
Private Road Standards for Commercial, Office Institutional, Industrial, and Mixed-Use
Private roads and bridges shall be built to State Road Standards for commercial, office institutional, industrial or
Residential Private Road Standards by Road Classification
If not specified in Article III (Subdivision Regulations) Subpart C (Subdivision Road Standards Applicable to All
Subdivision Types and Subtypes), the design and construction of private roads shall be reviewed using NCDOT
standards and requirements which reflect local NCDOT District Engineer policy modifications.
Private roads shall: (1) Be designated based on the number of lots served (See Table 3.2); (2) be designed and
constructed in accordance with the standards of this Article III (Subdivision Regulations) (see Table 3.3); and (3) be
designed to provide, at all times, adequate and unobstructed access for emergency response.
TABLE 3.2 SUBDIVISION PRIVATE ROAD CLASSIFICATION BY NUMBER OF
RESIDENTIAL LOTS SERVED
Number of Residential
6 to 49
Private roads shall meet the minimum design and construction standards according to the following road
Private Subdivision Collector Road. A private subdivision collector road shall be required
where the road serves:
50 or more units (existing or proposed) within the proposed subdivision or as an
aggregate of the proposed subdivision and any other development to which it connects,
As a through-road connecting lots within a subdivision to more than one (1) public
A nonresidential facility within a residential development, (i.e. clubhouse, golf course,
Private Subdivision Local Road. A private subdivision local road shall be required where a
private subdivision collector road is not required and a private subdivision limited local road is
Private Subdivision Limited Local Road. A private subdivision limited local road shall be
permitted where the road serves:
No more than five (5) lots or principal units.
Only as a maintenance and/or emergency access (regardless of the number of lots it
adjoins provided the road shall not be used to access lots and appropriate signage is
Private Driveway Easements. A private driveway easement shall be permitted where
the driveway serves no more than five (5) lots (the lots served by the easement shall be
identified on all plans and plats). Final plats must contain a note conveying maintenance
responsibility of the easement to the homeowners utilizing it to access their property.
shall state easement(s) must be maintained to allow clear passage for
Where private driveway easements are used, the surveyor or engineer shall place and
execute the following certification on the plat with their seal and registration or license
I, ________________________________________, Professional Land Surveyor or
Professional Engineer, certify that the lot(s) created by this plat is (are) served and accessed
by a recorded driveway easement shown here on. This easement may or may not meet the
standards for roads serving subdivisions in the Henderson County Land Development
Code. Neither the undersigned nor Henderson County certifies whether this easement
meets such standards.
This the _________ day of ______, 20____.
________________________________ Professional Surveyor or Engineer
Alley. An alley shall be permitted where the residential lot is also accessible by another public or
private road and the alley serves as primary access for the future homeowner and for utility
(i.e. trash collection). Visitors to the residential lot will use the principal access road to
TABLE 3.3. SUBDIVISION PRIVATE ROAD STANDARDS
PRIVATE ROAD CLASSIFICATION
Number of Residential Lots Served
6 to 49
Easement Width (ft.)
Sight Distance on Vertical Curves (ft.)
Center Line Curve Radius (ft.) See section F. below
Maximum Grade %
MINIMUM TRAVELWAY WIDTH (FT.) (TWO-WAY ROAD)
MINIMUM TRAVELWAY WIDTH (FT.) (ONE-WAY ROAD)
Shoulder Width (each side, two-way road) (ft.)
Shoulder Width (each side, one-way road) (ft.)
Stone Base (ABC) Compacted (in.)
(1½ of S-9.5B or BST)
Cut and Fill Slope
Vertical Clearance (ft.)
Center Line Curve Radius. The pavement width and stone base indicated in Table 3.3 shall be
increased within the curve where the road centerline is less than a 90-foot radius. If the radius is
70 to 90
feet, increase pavement and stone base width by 25 percent. If the radius is 60 to 70 feet,
pavement and stone base width by 35 percent. If the radius is 50 to 60 feet, increase
the pavement and stone
base width by 45 percent. If the radius is 40 to 50 feet, increase the
pavement and stone base width by
50 percent. No turn radius shall be less than 40 feet.
Additional Road Design Standards Applicable to all Road Classifications.
Intersections. Acceptable angles of intersection are:
90 to 75 degrees (preferred)
75 to 60 degrees (acceptable under extreme conditions as determined by the reviewing
B. Adequate Sight Distances. Adequate sight distances (see Figure 3B. Sight Visibility Triangle)
along a proposed road shall be provided by:
Choosing a good location for the right-of-way and clearing sight visibility triangles
when constructing the road (the minimum sight distance is 70 feet along the existing
road right-of-way and ten (10) feet along the new road right-of-way).
Providing an adequate place for vehicles to stop before entering the road.
Providing an apron design at proposed intersections to permit a vehicle to enter when
another vehicle is waiting to turn.
Figure 3B. Sight Visibility Triangle
Not to Scale
C. Gates. Entry gates shall be constructed and maintained as required by and in accordance with
Chapter 47 of the Henderson County Code, Entry Gates, and SR 3.7 (Gates and/or Guardhouses).
D. Dead Ends, Cul-de-sacs and Turnarounds. Vehicle turnaround areas shall be provided at the end of
all dead-end roads that exceed 300 feet. Loop roads should be encouraged where possible in lieu
of cul-de-sac or turnarounds. The reviewing agency may also require installation of turnarounds at:
Intermediate locations along dead end roads with a centerline length of greater than 2,500
The end of a phase of a project.
An intermediate location along any road that exceeds 1,500 feet in length.
Acceptable alternative turnaround designs for residential subdivisions are shown in Figures 3C,
3D, and 3E. Turnaround areas of a dead-end road cul-de-sac shall have a radius of not less than 35
Figure 3C. Alternative Turnaround Design Island
Not to Scale
Figure 3D. Alternative Turnaround Design Branch Turnaround
Not to Scale
Figure 3E. Alternative Turnaround Design T Turnaround
Not to Scale
Bridges. Bridges shall:
Be engineered to a minimum weight capacity of 50,000 pounds (For purposes of emergency
management vehicle access) and documentation shall be provided to indicate such (the 50,000
pound weight capacity requirement shall not apply to driveways);
Adhere to State Road Standards for drainage, hydraulics and minimum live load;
Adhere to standards for vertical clearance for roads (See Table 3.3);
Provide a travelway width not less than the travelway width of the road on either side of the
bridge, and in no case less than 12 feet in width;
Include a paved or gravel turnout on each end of the bridge to provide space for at least one (1)
vehicle to safely pull over and allow an oncoming vehicle to traverse the bridge where the
travelway width is less than 18 feet and is proposed to accommodate two-way traffic; and
Provide adequate line-of-sight distances for safe operation of two-way traffic.
Private Road Standard Reductions
Right-of-way Width Reduction. Right-of-way width requirements may be reduced to 30 feet in width
where no more than five (5) lots are proposed and it is unlikely (due to design, topographic conditions or
existing development) that any road contained therein would be extended to serve more than five (5) lots.
Right-of-way width reductions are also permitted where the development is a dwelling, multifamily, five (5)
or more units, provided these modifications are approved by the reviewing agency with consideration to
sound engineering, public safety concerns and community character.
Travelway Width Reduction. Travelway width requirements for private subdivision limited local roads in
special subdivisions may be reduced to nine (9) feet where an existing road with a travelway width of at
least nine (9) feet occurs. The Subdivision Administrator will permit the reduction only upon inspection for
road stability and provided that all other private subdivision limited local road standards are met. Existing
roads shall be improved to meet the private subdivision limited local road standards before a final plat can
Centerline Curve Radius Reductions. Centerline curve radius reductions may be reduced to:
80 feet where the existing cross slope on private subdivision collector roads is 15 percent or
60 feet where the existing cross slope on private subdivision limited local residential subdivision
roads or private subdivision local residential subdivision roads is 15 percent or greater.
Centerline curve radius reductions are also permitted where the development is a dwelling, multifamily, five
(5) or more units, provided these modifications are approved by the reviewing agency with consideration to
sound engineering, public safety concerns and community character.
Shoulder Width Reduction. Shoulder width shall be reduced for:
Private subdivision local roads and private subdivision collector roads to a minimum of two (2)
feet in cases where the existing cross slope is 20 percent or greater; and
Private subdivision collector roads to a minimum of four (4) feet in cases where the existing cross
slope is greater than ten (10) but less than 20 percent or greater.
Cut and Fill Slopes. Cut and fill slopes shall be reduced to 1:1 where the existing cross slope is 20 percent
Through 42- 109. Reserved